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Kashmir University 1st Semester Botany Study Material

kashmir university 1st semester Botany Study material

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Syllabus

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UNIT I: MICROBES AND FUNGI
Viruses: Discovery, general structure, replication, DNA virus (T-phage); lytic and lysogenic cycle, RNA
virus (TMV).
Bacteria: General characteristics and cell structure; reproduction – vegetative, asexual and recombination
(conjugation, transformation and transduction); economic importance.
Fungi: General characteristics, classification (Alexopolous, Mims & Blackwell), cell wall composition,


nutrition and reproduction; life cycle of Rhizopus (Zygomycota), Venturia (Ascomycota), Agaricus
(Basidiomycota).
Symbiotic Associations: Lichens and Mycorrhiza – general account and significance.
UNIT II: ALGAE
General characteristics, classification of algae (Round 1965), criteria for algal classification; range of thallus
organization; morphology, reproduction and life cycle of Nostoc, Chlamydomonas, Oedogonium, Vaucheria,
Ectocarpus, Batrachospermum; economic importance of algae.
UNIT III: BRYOPHYTES
Archegoniate – General characteristics, adaptations to land habit.
Bryophytes – General characteristics, Proskauer’s classification (upto family); morphology, anatomy and
reproduction (excluding developmental details) of Marchantia and Funaria; Evolution of sporophyte;
apogamy and apospory; alternation of generation; economic importance of bryophytes.
UNIT IV: PTERIDOPHYTES AND GYMNOSPERMS
Pteridophytes – General characteristics; classification of pteridophytes (Sporne 1965); Early land plants
(Rhynia); morphology, anatomy and reproduction (excluding developmental details) of Equisetum and
Dryopteris; heterospory and origin ofseed habit; evolution of stellar systems in pteridophytes.
Gymnosperms – General characteristics, classification – Christenhusz et al. 2011 (upto family);
morphology, anatomy and reproduction (excluding developmental details) of Cycas and Pinus; eco

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